Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) comes into play when the battery bank is full.
During charging, the controller allows as much current as the PV panel/array can
generate in order to reach the target voltage for the charge stage the controller is
in. Once the battery approaches this target voltage, the charge controller quickly
switches between connecting the battery bank to the panel array and
disconnecting the battery bank, which regulates the battery voltage holding it
constant. This quick switching is called PWM and it ensures your battery bank is
efficiently charged while protecting it from being overcharged by the PV
panel/array.

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